Justice starts with you


Registered by the Charity Commission (Charity number 1194627) our purpose is:

To advance the education of the public in the subject of rape as a criminal offence and the attitudes and false beliefs surrounding rape (otherwise known as ‘rape myths’) to reduce the prevalence of rape within society and to support victims of rape. To work within the judicial institutions to support efforts to reduce PTSD of a complainant and ensure increases in rape conviction rates are sustained.

Our vision is a world, in which justice for victims of sexual violence is the norm, not the exception. Our mission starts within the UK judiciary. We have an advisory board of Barristers who defend and prosecute sexual violence, who have, over the past 18 months, listened closely to concerns raised in the following reports End to end rape review and also considered their strong conviction of the need for advocacy and the jury model to stay protected. Our core projects are:

  • Changing the education system of Barristers to include a module on rape myths and the limits of advocacy, to be introduced in law degrees/BPC. 
  • To continue to find out directly from Barristers on their attitudes towards, opinions about and proposed solutions to finding parity in justice. A core part of this work is in finding out from Defence Barristers why cases can be dismantled so easily and to build this body of evidence to improve Police Investigations.
  • To create and implement a code of conduct that is created by Barristers and signed.
  • To work in close collaboration with the judiciary to gain solutions to the complexities of the low conviction rate and understanding from within not the other way around.
  • Share best practice from across the judiciary.
  • Create a global learning and dissemination programme of best practice.
  • A student advisory board provides findings from Court Observations undertaken across English Crown Courts.  

Hear our Trustee Dr Dominic Willmott dismantle Rape Myths:


  • Most rapes are carried out by a stranger - in reality around 90% of rapes are committed by someone known to the victim.
  • Rape occurs late at night in dark alleyways - victims are often raped in their own home, or in the home of the perpetrator.
  • Women who dress in revealing clothing provoke rape - rape has nothing to do with the type of clothing a woman wears. Anyone can be a victim of rape, from babies to elderly people, including boys and men.
  • If someone has drunk a lot of alcohol or taken drugs they are responsible for their rape - if a person is incapacitated by drink or drugs in law they cannot consent to sex. Drinking alcohol or taking drugs is not an invitation to rape.
  • A genuine victim will scream and fight back - the most common reaction to rape is for a victim to freeze. Other reactions include flop, friend and flight, as well as fight. These are instinctive and automatic responses to fear.
  • Rape leaves visible injuries - rape does not necessarily lead to physical injuries. Rapists often use manipulation or coercion to force their victims into sex.
  • Rape is a crime of passion - rape is a way of gaining power and control over a victim. Most rapes are premeditated and many rapists fail to get an erection or ejaculate. Men can control their urges and choose to rape as a way of feeling powerful.
  • False rape accusations are common - most victims do not report their rape to the police and false reporting is very rare. A CPS report from 2013 showed that over a period of 17 months there were 5,651 rape prosecutions and only 35 prosecutions for making a false allegation of rape. Men are more likely to be raped than to be falsely accused.
  • If someone is not crying hysterically they can’t have been raped - there is no one reaction to rape, often victims appear flat and calm as a result of shock.
  • If the victim didn’t report it straight away it wasn’t rape - often victims do not report rape straight away due to feelings of shame and guilt. This is particularly true if the rapist is known to the victim.
  • Only gay men get raped - the sexual orientation of the victim has no bearing on rape. Rapists rape due to their need for dominance, control and power. 

Students who are studying law at University's across the UK who may become Criminal Barristers are observing trials following this model: https://www.victimsupportni.com/site/wp-content/uploads/2021/02/VSNI-Report_BearingWitness_Final.pdf

Myth: If they did not scream, fight or get injured, it was not rape

During cross-examination of the complainant in T20, the defence barrister was recorded to have said “you didn’t say no” “you didn’t scream” “you didn’t say stop” “you didn’t say anything at the time that meant you weren’t consenting.” 

In T16, this myth was used frequently: “The defence barrister said ‘You weren’t struggling but behaving in a way that was leading him to believe that you wanted it’ – when the complainant answered that she was crying, the defence barrister replied ‘you didn’t say anything’. The defence barrister argued: “You did not struggle, you did not shout” / “You didn’t explicitly say ‘please get off.’” The defence asked “‘Did you actually say, “Please get off, or what are you doing here?’ (She said she froze)”. 

In T18 the complainant was accused by defence of “not resisting the attack”. In the same trial the defence barrister was recorded as saying: “You didn’t say ‘no’ at any time” “Did you fight in any way?” “You didn’t fight even though you said you are good at defending yourself.” In T13, “The defence barrister said ‘you did not say anything’ because the victim did not react when the defendant assaulted her. She said she froze.” In T14, “The defence barrister asked the complainant why she didn’t jump or scream.”

Myth: If no injury or violence then no rape took place

Lack of physical injury was raised in several trials as evidence that no rape took place. In one trial, an observer reported that the defence commented “a lot about bleeding and physical damage – where is the physical evidence? Though rape does not need full penetration.” In another trial, defence counsel claimed that “She did not get injured” therefore it was not rape, even though it transpired she had marks on her legs after the incident. 

In yet another trial the defence barrister “did make a fuss over no injuries or damage to her clothes.” Myths around violence were observed even when violence actually did occur. The defence barrister in one case suggested that if the complainant “had her clothes on when leaving… she couldn’t have been raped.”  At another point, the observer records an exchange between the complainant and defence barrister about why she didn’t fight. When the complainant said she didn’t fight because she thought he had a weapon in his hand, “the defence barrister actually said ‘But he didn’t do anything with it did he?’ as if that threat of violence was OK.”


Defence counsel Of the 14 trials that reached complainant cross-examination by the defence, observers recorded what they viewed to be disrespectful treatment in 13. This conduct ranged from more minor behaviours like repetitive or persistent questioning, through to what observers regarded as behaviour that constituted harassment, aggression or bullying behaviour towards the complainant. In 10 trials, observers noted both respectful and disrespectful treatment of the complainant at different stages of the trial. In most cases, they observed initial politeness at the beginning of questioning, and increasingly disrespectful treatment as cross-examination progressed. In only one case124 did both observers comment that the defence was conducted in a respectful manner throughout the trial. It is interesting to note that the defence barrister’s exemplary and respectful behaviour was not disadvantageous to their client, as the jury delivered a Not Guilty verdict for the defendant. The main forms of behaviour that observers identified as disrespectful treatment were aggressive or harassing questioning; overly persistent questioning; cruelty or insensitivity during questioning; persistent accusations of being a liar; sarcasm, mockery and belittling complainants; raised voices and shouting; victim-blaming; and unreasonable attacks on the complainant’s character. During the course of the project, observers consistently expressed their opposition and distaste to what they felt was unreasonable treatment of complainants by defence barristers. There was also significant crossover between commentary on disrespectful treatment and evidence of rape myths provided by observers. In a number of cases, aggressive and dismissive treatment of the complainant on the stand were coupled with the use of rape myths, stereotypes and report as they were too numerous. 

Below is a selection of comments which highlight the different types of treatment identified. Aggressive treatment or harassment In T1, one observer described the questioning of Complainant 1 as “vicious”, and stated that there was “nothing respectful about this questioning – absolutely oppressive and set out to infuriate and belittle the witness.”

The other observer agreed, saying “There was no respect shown to the complainant – a young person about to be questioned about the most serious of sexual crimes which she alleged happened to her when she was a child”, and described the questioning as “very patronising and disrespectful”. In T14, one observer noted that “following some initially pleasantries the remainder of the cross questioning was mainly aggressive and confrontational” and that “the defence barrister’s tone and body language was aggressive from the start and became heightened at times.” When asked what they saw that made them think the complainant was being treated respectfully, the other observer of this trial answered “Not a lot honestly” and cited the barrister’s “very aggressive body language” and rudeness to the complainant. In T15, one observer noted that the defence barrister “did raise his voice against complainant gradually over the cross-examination.”

The second observer also reported: “If I’m being honest I seen very little respect for the complainant. The defence barrister was quite rude and aggressive with the questioning”, and recorded that “the defence was screaming at the complainant and constantly saying the complainant was a liar.” Interestingly, this was one of the few trials observed that involved a male complainant, and this led one observer to opine: “I feel that had the complainant been female then he would have been shown much more respect from the defence.” In T16, when asked if there was anything that led them to think the complainant was treated respectfully by the defence, the observer responded, “Nothing I can remember or noted.”

The other observer described the defence’s tactics as “treating the complainant quite hard but in a very sneaky way.” In T18, one observer expressed the view that “the defence should not have been allowed to get away with as much as it did.” The other observer reported that the “barrister called the complainant ‘darling’. His tone was patronising during the whole cross-examination.” In T23, one observer had multiple reservations about the defence barrister’s conduct. These included: “Not allowing the complainant time to read documents before questioning. Pushing her all round her statement and then demanding an immediate answer” “The defence barrister is argumentative and repetitive, spoiling for a fight.” “Very aggressive, pushy intrusive questions, mainly about their relationship, rather than events on the night.” The conduct led the observer to question “How far does a barrister have to go before he gets a penalty?” In T25, there was a divergence of opinion between the two observers about the conduct of the defence towards the adult and child complainants. One observer stated “it was the worst I have seen. The prosecutor complained within 10 mins of the defence starting of his hostile confrontational tone. And it went downhill from there”. They went on to say: “The cross examination was aggressive and demeaning. The defence barrister went out of his way to be unpleasant and dismissive. Complaining at every step about the effect his deliberately insulting questions were having on the complainant.” This observer also made comment about the crossexamination of the second complainant, who was a child both at the time of the offences and at trial. In particular, the observer was critical of the fact that the “questions veered away from what had been agreed [in ground rules] – i.e. short simple questions”. By contrast, the second observer made only one brief comment about the conduct of the defence, describing the nature of the cross-examination as “robust but not disrespectful.”

Lack of sensitivity / cruelty In some cases, observers recorded particular instances in which defence barristers showed lack of sensitivity to complainants, often causing them anguish or upset.

In T1, one observer recorded that the barrister pursued a line of interrogation which blamed the complainant for not reporting the alleged offences earlier. They recorded: “It got to the stage when you could hear the girl crying and shouting [in the live link room] because she felt she hadn’t protected her little sister adequately. The defence barrister then complained to the judge about her behaviour on the stand.” I

n T10, both observers highlighted one incident during cross-examination of the second complainant as being particularly lacking in sensitivity. The barrister declared it was “convenient” that the only person she told about the offence, her sister, was now dead and therefore couldn’t testify. One observer described this as “the most brutal form of disrespect” and stated that “this was a very low moment.” In T18, the defence barrister was described as “relentless with the barrage of questions put to the complainant” which “did not stop or slow down when the complainant got very upset. Defence seemed to completely ignore the fact that the complainant had become extremely distressed.” In T25, one observer described the incredulity and sarcasm used when the complainant described decades of rape and sexual assault by her abusive partner. The observer described how “The complainant is so upset she starts retching in the live link room” during cross-examination, and “cried a lot”. The defence barrister complained that her distress “hampered his questioning”, and accused the complainant of faking her distress. The observer also noted that: “The defence barrister also asked her why she cried so hard in court but not in the ABE”, reinforcing myths about how victims of sexual violence tend to react in the aftermath of an assault.You can edit all of this text and replace it with what you want to write. Use the advanced editor to design this content page. 

INSTAGRAM Video 1 - Myth 1

Myth1 - Rape is sex become #Rapeisnotsex

This INSTAGRAM video reads a myth that Rape is Sex and clearly explains Rape can never be sex as sex is consensual. For this first video in 5 days, it achieved 3,008 views on Instagram.



We are supporting both of these campaigns please follow @justiceisnowuk and we will follow you back.


4500 + views


Read More  



Dr Dominic Willmott


Dominic is a Senior Lecturer in Forensic Psychology with substantial research experience within the field of Forensic, Legal & Criminal Psychology. Dominic is regularly invited to deliver talks and training about the role of bias in the courtroom, as well as how psychology can be used to better understand and tackle rape and gender based violence.

Chantelle Davis


Chantelle is a solicitor working for a global law firm and she is a specialist in commercial litigation. She advises on a broad range of areas including political risk, product and property liability and prospects of recovery in complex insurance litigation. Chantelle also has experience in events organisation and marketing/PR.

Ramya Nagesh


Ramya is a barrister and author, specialising in criminal law. Before coming to the Bar Ramya worked primarily in the not for profit sector specialising in human rights and international criminal law. Ramya currently sits on the CPS West Midlands Hate Crime Scrutiny Panel as the independent Barrister representative.

Danielle Davis


Danielle’s background has spanned across the public and not for profit sector focusing on improving strategic responses to violence and abuse. Her research has included: young people who have experienced sexual exploitation, young men displaying harmful sexual behaviour and the needs of male sexual assault victims. Danielle has a degree in psychology from the University of West London and is the founder and director of Davis and Associates.

Eileen Doyle


Eileen is a counsellor with extensive third sector experience. She is a specialist in providing therapeutic interventions to adults who have been sexually abused as children. She formerly worked for a charity providing counselling for people affected by rape and sexual assault. Eileen also runs a thriving private practice, working with adults and young people.

John Lennon


John has a background in social work, training social workers and working with adults with learning difficulties. John is a survivor and has worked tirelessly to raise awareness of male rape. He is the author of ‘My Journey to Justice?’ which chronicles his experience. John has previously set up a charity to help male survivors of sexual violence.

Dr Anthony Murphy


Anthony is a Senior Lecturer in Forensic Psychology with a research focus on criminal justice, police investigation, psycho-legal process, and victim experience. Anthony’s work includes collaborating with the Metropolitan Police to develop rape myth training for officers, the Mayor of London’s Office for Policing and Crime for the 2019 London Rape Review, and multiple levels of the criminal justice system. Anthony is passionate about using research to build evidence-based practice in training of personnel in criminal justice to improve the experiences of victims.

Nicola Herbert


Nicola is a survivor of childhood sexual abuse and rape. She told her story 38 years later when she went on to endure a gladiatorial experience in the witness box and lived under the spotlight of the press during a high profile trial. The last six years she has put her experiences to good use as a public speaker helping the public and professional organisations to understand more about this topic. She works with NHS England and is part of a research project at Coventry University that is determining how to make a victim's experience through a SARC a more sympathetic and effective journey. In her private health and wellness practice she runs trauma informed yoga workshops supporting men and women in their quest to manage their trauma and recovery.

Madeleine Black


Madeleine Black has an unusual personal story which she uses to inspire and motivate others. She chose to forgive the two men who gang raped her at thirteen years old and she shares her story for many reasons. She wants to end the shame, stigma and silence surrounding sexual violence enabling others to find their voice, whatever their story is. The sharing of her story publicly on The Forgiveness Project’s website in September 2014, opened many doors for Madeleine in ways she never imagined, and the invitations started to pour in. Many women and men got in contact and explained how reading her story gave them strength, hope, and a different perspective of what’s possible in their lives. She has taken part in both TV and radio interviews and has been invited to share her story of being gang raped as a teenager at conferences, book events, schools etc. In March 2018 she won the Amazing Strength award at the No. 1 Magazine Amazing Women Awards and in October of the same year was asked to be the Patron for Say Women, a Scottish organisation which offers safe accommodation and support to young women who are survivors of sexual abuse/rape and who are homeless. She is one of 50 Thrivers taking part in research by The Global Resilience Project to develop a resilience blueprint for others. She is a TEDx speaker, a story teller for The Forgiveness Project and has recently become involved with their programme RESTORE, sharing her story in prisons Her memoir, Unbroken, was published on April 4th 2017.

You can read about our survivor's experiences here:


I was raped on 25th August 2010. I was held prisoner in my own home and repeatedly raped and tortured. I was left with numerous physical injuries and required plastic surgery. I was also left with dreadful emotional scars and now live with debilitating PTSD. 

There was overwhelming physical and forensic evidence and my perpetrator had an extensive criminal record and was in fact on the run when he attacked me. A year after my rape, my case went to trial at crown court. What I found most extraordinary was that, unlike the defendant, I did not have any opportunity to engage with the barrister prior to the trial and the only preparation I had was being given my victim impact statement on the day the trial started.

I was expecting the trial to be aggressive and that I would have to re-live the trauma by being cross-examined however nothing could have prepared me for the experience of giving evidence.

Surprisingly very little of the attack was questioned, which was initially most welcome, that is until the defence barrister asked me about personal issues which were (in my opinion) completely unconnected and irrelevant to the case. Without going into any detail I shall list these and you can make up your own minds:

1. My looks and dress sense

2. The financial viability of my business

3. My age (I was 40 and the defendant was 20)

4. The type of man I was attracted to

5. My family relationships, particularly my mother

6. My drug and alcohol use

7. My mental health history

8. The type of sex I enjoyed 

9. My medical records, from birth to date

Ultimately my rapist was found guilty. 

I have spent many years campaigning for the rights of victims and for a fair and more transparent system which would make it easier for victims to report. I wish to raise awareness of the complex issues faced by victims in the aftermath of rape, especially when in the court system.


Just 5 days after my mums funeral I walked into a Cheshire police station to disclose the sexual abuse I had suffered as a 12 year old boy.

Nobody else in the world had any idea where I was or what I was doing. In fact nobody was even aware of the abuse. This was Monday February 4th 2013 and to be fair to Cheshire police at that time I was treated well after my disclosure. I felt respected and listened to. I would travel back to Macclesfield just 2 days later to do my video statement.

My issues started on June 5th when I received my CPS letter informing me that my case would not be pursued as it was NOT in the public Interest to prosecute my offender.

(It’s such a long story, please read ‘My Full Truth, It was always in the Public Interest’ by David Lean.)

Remember this is now July 2013 and my offenders name is Barry Bennell…….

I demanded an appeal and eventually after almost 7 months I was informed that my case had changed the prosecution guidance in favour of pursuing cases such as mine as being in the public interest. (Did we really need to change the law, it should have been that way anyway!)

Barry Bennell was charged with four offences in March 2014.

I was then informed I would have to wait 15 months for the case to get to court. These people have no idea what this period of your life is like. I had already been waiting 13 months to get to this point. To try and function, to hold down a job when only a few people knew about the abuse was such a difficult period in my life.

Fast forward to April 2015, I was waiting to give evidence at court in the trial when I was told Bennell had just pleaded guilty to the charges. I knew immediately this meant trial, no media attention to help raise awareness and bring others forward and more importantly I knew he would then get rewarded for his plea in the form of a reduced sentence. I was devastated. After all this time of him pleading not guilty and putting me through hell, he can then do what he wants on the day of the trial and be rewarded!

A month later I was attending Court under special measures to read my victim impact statement. Court officials met me and took me to a private room. Then when it was time they came and got me and left me outside the Courtroom….alone with my abuser !!

The one thing I had said all along was that I couldn’t cope with seeing his new look, his current appearance. I had enough issues with the past, I didn’t need the issue of knowing what he looked like now.

As soon as he was led into Court I fell apart and then just seconds later I was asked to go into Court. I was a mess yet they didn’t care. As I was walking in I asked ‘the screens are up aren’t they?’ I was then immediately bundled out of the Courtroom, as guess what, they had completely forgotten to erect the screens! This was the last thing I needed.

Anyway he was sent to prison for 2 years, having to serve just one as offenders only serve half their sentence?! I also know that 1 year was knocked off his sentence for that ‘early plea’. Early??

So at this stage, Bennell was convicted and even though I had told police in 2013, there could be 100s of victims, that he was obsessed with me once we were alone, he wouldn’t leave me alone for a second during my 2 night stay at his house, I felt the police had done a good job. I had never been in a police station prior to February 2013 and was very naïve.

My issues were very much with the CPS and Crown Court Officials at that time. The court changed their own procedures on how vulnerable victims are taken into court on the back of my case. They also apologised.

Most people think that a conviction is the end of the process. But this was just the beginning………

In November 2016 as the story of abuse within football broke I finally told my own truth to Sky News. Bennell was finally convicted of offences against 12 boys in March 2018 and sentenced to 31 years in prison. I always knew there would be more, as it turned out probably around 100 boys have now disclosed to police.

Whilst I was stood outside the Crown Court after Bennell was sentenced, I was informed by a reporter that when I first disclosed in 2013, police had already been aware of other victims from a previous 1998 case, so they could have brought additional charges relating to those victims, meaning my original case would not have been dropped.

I complained to Cheshire police and as a result of this I learnt that there were 23 children who came forward in the 90s case against Bennell but that they offered him a plea deal meaning some charges were laid on file meaning NONE could be used in any future cases.

I also learnt that after Bennell’s conviction in the 90s, Bennell himself asked to see police in a prison interview. At the start of this interview he asks for assurances that if he provides further names of other victims that he will not be prosecuted. These assurances were given!! Bennell himself then provided the names of nine other children who he admitted to sexually abusing.These are nine more, not part of the original 23 who disclosed!

I obviously wanted answers as to why the other victims were not contacted to strengthen my 2013 case and was advised it would have been viewed as a ‘going fishing trip’ or ‘trawling’!

So Barry Bennell names them and it would have been seen as trawling?

To make matters worse I was then told that during late 2016/early 2017 the police had attempted to trace the extra nine victims and the ones they could trace had been contacted. So most of the nine were now allowed to be contacted but not 3 years earlier in 2013? So when I had told the police that there would be more, asking them to let me go to the media, the police already had a list of names!

I eventually received an apology from the police and have been promised an independent inquiry by the Police and Crime Commissioner.

I believe that I have still not got to the full truth, this is all about change for me, to ensure others don’t go through what I went through, and continue to go through.

I also found out that in November 2016 when Bennell was put back in prison while the new investigation was going on, that I should have been informed as this could only happen as he was still on licence for the offences against myself. I should also have been informed that he was due to be released prior to May 2016 at his half way point of his sentence. On both occasions nobody contacted me. Again, I received an apology for the way I was treated.

The criminal justice system, in my experience, was completely unprofessional in so many different ways.

But I was a lucky one !! Lucky……

I got my conviction; it brought others forward. I have family and friends around me. I am strong and resillient. Change has been brought about, which I only hope will help others in the future.

I believe my Truth was and will always be….

In the public Interest !!


Having reported my own rape to the police I was immediately told that I would not be allowed to talk about the assault with my best friend as she was a witness in the case, as I had disclosed the offence to her prior to me reporting it. Having found the courage to speak out I was silenced by the system, effectively having my support removed. I was also not allowed to discuss any details of the incident with my ISVA (Independent Sexual Violence Adviser). The system had decreed that I was to live with the trauma of the rape on my own until after the investigation had concluded.

It wasn’t long into the investigation that I realised the system was set up to protect the rights of the defendant rather than the victim. I was not allowed to know what the defendant had said during his interview; he was obviously (and rightly) told what I had said. I was asked to provide my mobile phone as evidence. His mobile phone was not seized.

Waiting for the trial was agonising and being unable to talk about what had happened had a detrimental impact on my mental health. I was unable to receive any counselling until after the trial meaning it was over a year from the assault when I accessed therapy.

It felt as though the system was against me at every step of the way. I was told I was unable to meet the CPS barrister prior to the trial; I was told that the Judge would decide on the first day of the trial whether I was able to give evidence from behind a screen rather than via video link; I was not told of the defendant’s previous convictions which would have massively helped my feelings of guilt for reporting him.

Giving evidence at trial was the worst experience of my life. Having to walk past the defendant’s family to get to the witness box was intimidating. Having the defendant’s barrister use rape myths and trying to undermine everything I said made me feel as though I wasn’t believed. I felt trapped, attacked, humiliated, alone.

After the trial (I was one of the lucky few who actually saw the defendant found guilty) I was effectively abandoned by the system, having had the support of an ISVA up until the trial. After the trial I had no support at all. Despite being assured by the police on numerous occasions that after the trial they would be able to answer my questions about the investigation I was told that due to my diagnosis of PTSD they would not speak to me in case the meeting triggered my symptoms. (Ironic considering they weren’t concerned that giving evidence might trigger me!) I felt as though I had been completely used and abused.

* Stories featured on our website are to the best of our knowledge truthful and we cannot be held liable for any inaccuracies.

What are rape myths?

Rape myths are generally held false beliefs about rape. These beliefs are widely held and serve to shift the blame from the perpetrator to the victim. Given the prevalence of rape myths within society they can reinforce feelings of blame and shame felt by victims and can lead to them thinking that they won’t be believed.

What is victim blaming?

Like rape myths, victim blaming is a way of shifting blame for sexual abuse from the perpetrator to the victim. This includes looking at the victim’s behaviour, clothing, and situation rather than holding the offender responsible. It can make victims feel as though they will be blamed for what happened to them and can exacerbate self blame.

How likely is a rapist to be convicted?

Statistics from the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) show that the conviction rate for rape is as low as 1.5% of reported cases. This has led to many people saying that rape in the UK has effectively been decriminalised. There is also controversy over police demands to seize victim’s phones and requests to view their medical records.

What are the effects of victim blaming?

People who experience victim blaming are more likely to suffer increased distress and secondary traumatisation. Victim blaming makes it less likely someone will report due to fear of not being believed. Jurors can be influenced by victim blaming myths meaning they are less likely to convict a defendant accused of rape.

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We also collect, use and share Aggregated Data such as statistical or demographic data for any purpose. Aggregated Data may be derived from your personal data but is not considered personal data in law as this data does not directly or indirectly reveal your identity. For example, we may aggregate your Usage Data to calculate the percentage of users accessing a specific website feature. 

Sensitive Data. Sensitive data refers to data that includes details about your race or ethnicity, religious or philosophical beliefs, sex life, sexual orientation, political opinions, trade union membership, information about your health and genetic and biometric data, and criminal convictions and offences. We do not collect any sensitive data about you. 

How is your personal data collected? 

We use different methods to collect data from and about you including through: Direct interactions. You may give us your Identity, Contact and Financial Data by filling in forms or by corresponding with us by post, phone, email or otherwise. This includes personal data you provide when you (where applicable): apply for our products or services; create an account on our website; subscribe to our service or publications; request marketing to be sent to you; enter a competition, promotion or survey; or give us some feedback or contact us. Automated technologies or interactions. As you interact with our website, we may automatically collect Technical Data about your equipment, browsing actions and patterns. We collect this personal data by using cookies and other similar technologies. 

Analytics. We may receive technical personal data about you from analytics providers such as Google. We may receive Contact, Financial and Transaction Data from providers of technical, payment and delivery services such as Paypal. How we use your personal data. We will only use your personal data when the law allows us to. Most commonly, we will use your personal data in the following circumstances: Where we need to perform the contract we are about to enter into or have entered into with you. Where it is necessary for our legitimate interests (or those of a third party) and your interests and fundamental rights do not override those interests. Where we need to comply with a legal or regulatory obligation. To keep you updated about our products and services where you have consented to this. We shall send this information to you by email. You have the right to withdraw consent to marketing at any time by contacting us at leonie@justiceisnow.org and by clicking on the ‘unsubscribe’ button in our emails. 

Purposes for which we will use your personal data. 

We have set out below, in a table format, a description of all the ways we plan to use your personal data, and which of the legal bases we rely on to do so. We have also identified what our legitimate interests are where appropriate. Note that we may process your personal data for more than one lawful ground depending on the specific purpose for which we are using your data. 

Purpose/ActivityType of dataLawful basis for processing including basis of legitimate interest
To register you as a new customer(a) Identity (b) ContactPerformance of a contract with you
To process and deliver your order including: (a) Manage payments, fees and charges (b) Collect and recover money owed to us(a) Identity (b) Contact (c) Financial (d) Transaction (e) Marketing and Communications(a) Performance of a contract with you (b) Necessary for our legitimate interests (to recover debts due to us)
To manage our relationship with you which will include: (a) Notifying you about changes to our terms or privacy policy (b) Asking you to leave a review or take a survey(a) Identity (b) Contact (c) Profile (d) Marketing and Communications(a) Performance of a contract with you (b) Necessary to comply with a legal obligation (c) Necessary for our legitimate interests (to keep our records updated and to study how customers use our products/services)
To enable you to partake in a competition or complete a survey(a) Identity (b) Contact (c) Profile (d) Usage (e) Marketing and Communications(a) Performance of a contract with you (b) Necessary for our legitimate interests (to study how customers use our products/services, to develop them and grow our business)
To administer and protect our business and this website (including troubleshooting, data analysis, testing, system maintenance, support, reporting and hosting of data)(a) Identity (b) Contact (c) Technical(a) Necessary for our legitimate interests (for running our business, provision of administration and IT services, network security, to prevent fraud and in the context of a business reorganisation or group restructuring exercise) (b) Necessary to comply with a legal obligation
To deliver relevant website content and advertisements to you and measure or understand the effectiveness of the advertising we serve to you(a) Identity (b) Contact (c) Profile (d) Usage (e) Marketing and Communications (f) TechnicalNecessary for our legitimate interests (to study how customers use our products/services, to develop them, to grow our business and to inform our marketing strategy)
To use data analytics to improve our website, products/services, marketing, customer relationships and experiences(a) Technical (b) UsageNecessary for our legitimate interests (to define types of customers for our products and services, to keep our website updated and relevant, to develop our business and to inform our marketing strategy)
To make suggestions and recommendations to you about goods or services that may be of interest to you(a) Identity (b) Contact (c) Technical (d) Usage (e) ProfileNecessary for our legitimate interests (to develop our products/services and grow our business)

Marketing. We strive to provide you with choices regarding certain personal data uses, particularly around marketing and advertising. Our lawful ground for processing your personal data to send you marketing communications is either your consent or our legitimate interests (namely to grow our business). Under the Privacy and Electronic Communications Regulations, we may send you marketing communications from us if (i) you made a purchase or asked for information from us about our goods or services or (ii) you agreed to receive marketing communications and in each case you have not opted out of receiving such communications since. Under these regulations, if you are a limited company, we may send you marketing emails without your consent. However you can still opt out of receiving marketing emails from us at any time. <strong>Promotional offers from us. We may use your Identity, Contact, Technical, Usage and Profile Data to form a view on what we think you may want or need, or what may be of interest to you. This is how we decide which products, services and offers may be relevant for you (we call this marketing). You will receive marketing communications from us if you have requested information from us or purchased goods or services from us and, in each case, you have not opted out of receiving that marketing. 

Third-party marketing. We will get your express opt-in consent before we share your personal data with any third party. Opting out. You can ask us or third parties to stop sending you marketing messages at any time by following the opt-out links on any marketing message sent to you or by contacting us at Leonie@justiceisnow.org

Where you opt out of receiving these marketing messages, this will not apply to personal data provided to us as a result of a product/service purchase, warranty registration, product/service experience or other transactions. 

Cookies. You can set your browser to refuse all or some browser cookies, or to alert you when websites set or access cookies. If you disable or refuse cookies, please note that some parts of this website may become inaccessible or not function properly. 

We will only use your personal data for the purposes for which we collected it, unless we reasonably consider that we need to use it for another reason and that reason is compatible with the original purpose. Please note that we may process your personal data without your knowledge or consent, in compliance with the above rules, where this is required or permitted by law. Disclosures of your personal data. We may have to share your personal data with the parties set out below for the purposes set out in the table in paragraph 4 above: External Third Parties such as service providers, professional advisers, HMRC and regulators; and Third parties to whom we may choose to sell, transfer, or merge parts of our business or our assets. Alternatively, we may seek to acquire other businesses or merge with them. If a change happens to our business, then the new owners may use your personal data in the same way as set out in this privacy policy. We require all third parties to respect the security of your personal data and to treat it in accordance with the law. We do not allow our third-party service providers to use your personal data for their own purposes and only permit them to process your personal data for specified purposes and in accordance with our instructions. International transfers. To deliver services to you, it is sometimes necessary for us to share your personal information outside the European Economic Area (EEA), eg: • with our offices outside the EEA; • with our service providers located outside the EEA; • if you are based outside the EEA; • where there is an international dimension to the services we are providing to you. These transfers are subject to special rules under European and UK data protection law. Whenever we transfer your personal data out of the EEA, we ensure a similar degree of protection is afforded to it by ensuring at least one of the following safeguards is implemented: • We will only transfer your personal data to countries that have been deemed to provide an adequate level of protection for personal data by the European Commission. For further details, see European Commission: Adequacy of the protection of personal data in non-EU countries. • Where we use certain service providers, we may use specific contracts approved by the European Commission which give personal data the same protection it has in Europe. For further details, see European Commission: Model contracts for the transfer of personal data to third countries. • Where we use providers based in the US, we may transfer data to them if they are part of the Privacy Shield which requires them to provide similar protection to personal data shared between Europe and the US. For further details, see European Commission: EU-US Privacy Shield. If you would like further information please contact us using the contact details in clause 1 above . <strong>Data security </strong>We have put in place appropriate security measures to prevent your personal data from being accidentally lost, used or accessed in an unauthorised way, altered or disclosed. In addition, we limit access to your personal data to those employees, agents, contractors and other third parties who have a business need to know. They will only process your personal data on our instructions and they are subject to a duty of confidentiality. We have put in place procedures to deal with any suspected personal data breach and will notify you and any applicable regulator of a breach where we are legally required to do so. Data retention How long will you use my personal data for? We will only retain your personal data for as long as necessary to fulfil the purposes we collected it for, including for the purposes of satisfying any legal, accounting, or reporting requirements. We may retain your personal data for a longer period in the event of a complaint or if we reasonably believe there is a prospect of litigation in respect to our relationship with you. To determine the appropriate retention period for personal data, we consider the amount, nature, and sensitivity of the personal data, the potential risk of harm from unauthorised use or disclosure of your personal data, the purposes for which we process your personal data and whether we can achieve those purposes through other means, and the applicable legal requirements. By law we have to keep basic information about our customers (including Contact, Identity, Financial and Transaction Data) for six years after they cease being customers for tax purposes. If you are not a customer we shall retain your data for 2 years following your last engagement with us. In some circumstances you can ask us to delete your data: see ‘Request erasure’ below for further information. In some circumstances we may anonymise your personal data (so that it can no longer be associated with you) for research or statistical purposes in which case we may use this information indefinitely without further notice to you. <strong>Your legal rights </strong>Under certain circumstances, you have the following rights under data protection laws in relation to your personal data: Request access to your personal data. Request correction of your personal data. Request erasure of your personal data. Object to processing of your personal data. Request restriction of processing your personal data. Request transfer of your personal data. Right to withdraw consent. If you wish to exercise any of the rights set out above, please contact us at leonie@justiceisnow.org. No fee usually required. You will not have to pay a fee to access your personal data (or to exercise any of the other rights). However, we may charge a reasonable fee if your request is clearly unfounded, repetitive or excessive. Alternatively, we may refuse to comply with your request in these circumstances. Changes to this privacy policy.  We may change this privacy policy from time to time – when we do we shall inform you via our website.

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